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15-LOX-1: a novel molecular target of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells.

Shureiqi I, Chen D, Lee JJ, Yang P, Newman RA, Brenner DE, Lotan R, Fischer SM, Lippman SM

J Natl Cancer Inst 92: 1136-1142 (2000)


BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) appear to act via induction of apoptosis-programmed cell death-as potential colorectal cancer chemopreventive agents. NSAIDs can alter the production of different metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and arachidonic acids) through effects on lipoxygenases (LOXs) and cyclooxygenases. 15-LOX-1 is the main enzyme for metabolizing colonic linoleic acid to 13-S-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-S-HODE), which induces apoptosis. In human colorectal cancers, the expression of this enzyme is reduced. NSAIDs can increase 15-LOX enzymatic activity in normal leukocytes, but their effects on 15-LOX in neoplastic cells have been unknown. We tested the hypothesis that NSAIDs induce apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells by increasing the protein expression and enzymatic activity of 15-LOX-1. METHODS: We assessed 15-LOX-1 protein expression and enzymatic activity, 13-S-HODE levels, and 15-LOX-1 inhibition in association with cellular growth inhibition and apoptosis induced by NSAIDs (primarily sulindac and NS-398) in two colorectal cancer cell lines (RKO and HT-29). All P values are two-sided. RESULTS: Sulindac and NS-398 progressively increased 15-LOX-1 protein expression in RKO cells (at 24, 48, and 72 hours) in association with subsequent growth inhibition and apoptosis. Increased 13-S-HODE levels and the formation of 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid on incubation of the cells with the substrate arachidonic acid confirmed the enzymatic activity of 15-LOX-1. Inhibition of 15-LOX-1 in RKO cells by treatment with caffeic acid blocked NS-398-induced 13-S-HODE production, cellular growth inhibition, and apoptosis (P =. 007, P<.0001, and P<.0001, respectively); growth inhibition and apoptosis were restored by adding exogenous 13-S-HODE (P<.0001 for each) but not its parent compound, linoleic acid (P = 1.0 for each). Similar results occurred with other NSAIDs and in HT-29 cells. CONCLUSIONS: These data identify 15-LOX-1 as a novel molecular target of NSAIDs for inducing apoptosis in colorectal carcinogenesis.