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Reduced 15-lipoxygenase-2 immunostaining in prostate adenocarcinoma: correlation with grade and expression in high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia.

Jack GS , Brash AR , Olson SJ , Manning S , Coffey CS , Smith JA Jr , Shappell SB

Hum Pathol 31: 1146-1154 (2000)


Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites are implicated in the oncogenesis of several tumors, including prostate cancer. 15-Lipoxygenase-2 (15-LOX-2) is a novel AA-metabolizing enzyme with a limited tissue distribution, which includes prostate, lung, skin, and cornea. Previous studies have shown that 15-LOX-2 is present in benign prostate secretory cells and reduced in prostate adenocarcinoma and that production of the 15-LOX-2 metabolite 15S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid is reduced in malignant compared with benign prostate. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency with which 15-LOX-2 immunostaining is reduced in prostate carcinoma and to correlate reduced expression with tumor differentiation (grade) and other pathologic parameters in radical prostatectomy specimens. Paraffin immunoperoxidase with a polyclonal antibody specific for 15-LOX-2 was performed on tumors and benign portions from 70 cases, and the percentage of tumor immunostaining for 15-LOX-2 was assessed. Whereas uniform 15-LOX-2 immunostaining was observed in secretory cells of benign glands, it was markedly reduced or absent in most adenocarcinomas: 23 of 70 tumors showed completely absent 15-LOX-2 immunostaining, and 45 of 70 cases showed negative immunostaining in more than 50% of the tumor. The extent of reduced 15-LOX-2 immunostaining correlated with tumor differentiation, with retained expression particularly in Gleason score 5 tumors versus a significant reduction of 15-LOX-2 in higher-grade tumors (mean +/- SD tumor 15-LOX-2 positive: Gleason score 5 = 67%+/-30%, Gleason score 6 = 16%+/-30%, Gleason score 7 = 23%+/-28%, Gleason score > or =8 = 41%+/-46%). In 16 cases with multifocal tumors or different foci of the same tumor with different grades, the higher-grade foci had significantly reduced 15-LOX-2 expression compared with the lower-grade foci. In peripheral zone tumors without complete loss of 15-LOX-2 expression, there was a significant inverse relationship between 15-LOX-2 immunostaining and tumor volume. There was not a significant correlation between 15-LOX-2 immunostaining and serum PSA or pathologic stage. In a subset of 27 cases, 15-LOX-2 expression in high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) glands was significantly reduced compared with benign glands. These data show that in contrast to the uniform expression of 15-LOX-2 in differentiated secretory cells of benign prostate, reduced 15-LOX-2 is a common alteration in prostate carcinoma, and this correlates with tumor cell differentiation. That reduced expression is seen in HGPIN suggests that this may be an early alteration in carcinoma development.