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Promutagenic etheno-DNA adducts in multistage mouse skin carcinogenesis: correlation with lipoxygenase-catalyzed arachidonic acid metabolism.

Nair J, Furstenberger G, Burger F, Marks F, Bartsch H

Chem Res Toxicol 13: 703-709 (2000)


Formation of the lipoxygenase-catalyzed metabolites of arachidonic acid, 8-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (8-HETE) and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE), and of the exocyclic DNA adducts 1,N(6)-ethenodeoxyadenosine (epsilondA) and 3, N(4)-ethenodeoxycytidine (epsilondC) was investigated in NMRI mouse skin carcinogenesis induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and promoted by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). In reversible papillomas obtained after 20 weeks of TPA treatment, 15- and 68-fold higher contents of 8-HETE and 12-HETE, respectively, were observed, which were paralleled by 12- and 9-fold increased amounts of epsilondA and epsilondC, respectively. When compared to the level in vehicle-treated control skin, these elevations were statistically significant. In irreversible papillomas harvested 20 weeks after the last TPA treatment, the levels of HETEs and etheno-DNA adducts were found to be slightly reduced, as compared to those in reversible papillomas, but were still increased over control levels in age-matched mice. Comparison of mean group values by simple regression analysis showed a close positive correlation between HETE and etheno-DNA adduct levels. Consistent with the miscoding properties of epsilondA causing mainly A --> T transversions, its increased formation in papillomas could thus contribute to this type of mutation in codon 61 of cHa-ras, shown to be a hallmark of DMBA-initiated and TPA-promoted mouse skin carcinogenesis. Although direct evidence that etheno adducts are derived from lipoxygenase-catalyzed metabolites of arachidonic acid is missing, our results implicate DNA damage by oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation as a cause of genetic instability observed at late stages of tumor promotion in mouse skin carcinogenesis.