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The effect of 15-lipoxygenase-1 expression on cancer cells.

Kelavkar U, Glasgow W, Eling TE

Curr Urol Rep 3: 207-214 (2002)


Lipoxygenases oxidatively metabolize polyunsaturated fatty acids to a rich spectrum of biologically active products. One enzyme of the lipoxygenase family, Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase-1 (arachidonate:oxygen 15-oxidoreductase, EC, is implicated in several forms of epithelial cell cancers, and provides a rationale for exploring its role in the progression and metastasis of cancers. Thus, 15-LO-1 could be a marker of the growth and spread of cancers. The importance of 15-LO-1 expression is imparted by its metabolic product of linoleic acid, yielding 13-(S)-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-(S)-HODE). In order to maximize our understanding of the roles of lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenases in cancer, it is necessary to correlate their metabolic pathways to the respective expression levels, and not exaggerate the presence or absence of an enzyme or its function when it clearly is not there. It is also important to acknowledge that some forms of these enzymes may not even be relevant to human disease. Although it is unlikely that any single gene is sufficient to account for the complex etiology of cancer, 15-LO-1 overexpression is clearly a key component in the cell proliferation process. This article is divided into three sections emphasizing the key role of 15-LO-1 in prostate, colorectal, and breast cancers.