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Mechanisms controlling cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis after 12-lipoxygenase inhibition in prostate cancer cells.

Pidgeon G.P., Kandouz M., Meram A., Honn K.V.

Cancer Res. 62: 2721-2727 (2002)


Extensive studies have implicated the role of dietary fatty acids in prostatecancer progression. Platelet-type 12-Lipoxygenase (12-LOX) has beenshown to regulate growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis of prostate cancer. The effect of two 12-LOX inhibitors, Baicalein and N-benzyl-N-hydroxy-5-phenylpentamide (BHPP), on the mechanisms controlling cell cycle progression and apoptosis were examined in two prostate cancer cell lines, PC3 and DU-145. Treatment with Baicalein or BHPP resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in cell proliferation, as measured by BrdUrd incorporation. This growth arrest was shown to be because of cell cycle inhibition at G(0)/G(1), and was associated with suppression of cyclin D1 and D3 protein levels. PC3 cells also showed a strong decrease in phosphorylated retinoblastoma (pRB) protein, whereas the other retinoblastoma-associated proteins, p107 and p130, were inhibited in DU-145 cells. Treatment with 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid in the presence of Baicalein blocked loss of pRB, whereas 12(S)-HETE alone induced pRB expression. Treatment with either Baicalein or BHPP resulted in significant apoptosis in both cell lines as measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling. DU-145 cells underwent apoptosis more rapidly than PC-3 cells. The mechanisms involved were decreased phosphorylation of Akt, loss of survivin and subsequent activation of caspase-3 and caspase-7 in each cell line, decreased Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) expression in DU-145, and a shift in Bcl-2/Bax levels favoring apoptosis in PC-3 cells. Addition of 12(S)-HETE protected both cell lines from Baicalein-induced apoptosis, whereas other LOX metabolites, 5(S)-HETE, or 15(S)-HETE did not. These results show that the 12-LOX pathway is a critical regulator of prostate cancer progression and apoptosis, by affecting various proteins regulating these processes. Therefore, inhibition of 12-LOX is a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of prostate cancer.

LOX-DB entries related to this article: h-p12-lox